Higher Education Essay Summary

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Undergraduate education places great emphasis on inexpensive and effective classroom strategies, teaching abilities and character, and student achievement and engagement. Still, the anticipated progress has not been made, as the Spellings commission pointed out (“A TEST OF LEADERSHIP…”, 2006). As the literature review has amply demonstrated, the disillusionment with funding, faculty and student engagement, and achievement has only increased in the last twenty years- during which time higher education has focused on budgetary concerns and thus made little progress in the reconceptualization in practice of the useful SDL and SL theories.

In the 21st century, focusing on complete student development has become standard practice for educators. However, the changing nature of technological exposure demands constant changes from education as well. In emerging computer science and engineering programs, the use of SDL has been subtly directed by posing realistic problems for further reflection, study, and corrections. Whether a new solution is arrived at independently or cooperatively, SL and SDL theories overlap in a process of psychological and social discovery (Stewart, 2007). This involves focus on social skills, study skills, and curriculum standards (DiPerna, 2006). Academic confidence and well-developed social skills go hand-in-hand in predicting student achievement.

Effective faculty members implement various strategies to reduce class disruptions and enhance learning. Although no singular strategy exists to be equally effective on all students, one common denominator of high teacher efficacy is the teacher’s love of academia and unquenchable thirst to educate students (Payne, 1998). Quality faculty are aware of their students’ strengths and weaknesses, have positive attitudes, communicate well will all stakeholders, have busy classrooms, possess in-depth content knowledge, and are good listeners (Marzano R. , 2007). Although these are all requirements to enhance student achievement, faculty are still hindered by unpredictable circumstances.

Kennedy (2006), states that these circumstances often affect teacher performance. Exuberant amounts of paperwork, classroom visitors, unexpected questioning, and office interruptions lead to unforeseen classroom disruptions. A teacher with exceptional skills will utilize these disruptions to enhance student learning. For instance, a teacher could use an unexpected question to create an interesting learning experience which will heighten student curiosity and increase academic motivation (Kennedy, 2006).

“The principle goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done,” – Jean Piaget (Eisner, 2005).


A TEST OF LEADERSHIP: Charting the Future of U.S. Higher Education. (2006). A Report of the Commission Appointed by Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

THE HEART OF STUDENT SUCCESS. (2010). An Executive Summary of the Center for Community College of Student Engagement. Austin, TX: Community College Leadership Program.

MAPPING NEW DIRECTIONS: HIGHER EDUCATION FOR OLDER ADULTS. (Nov. 2008). American Council on Education, Second Report: Washington, DC. Print.

Ahwee, S., Chiappone, L., Cuevas, P., Galloway, F., Hart, J., Lones, J., & … Tate, B. (2004). The Hidden and Null Curriculums: An Experiment in Collective Educational Biography. Educational Studies, 35(1), 25-43. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Armstrong, T. (2006). The best schools. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Astin, A. (1993). What Matter in College: Four Critical Years Revisited. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

Bender, W., & Vail, C. (1995). Teachers’ attitudes toward increased mainstreaming: Implementing effective instruction for students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 87-94.

Berman, P., McLaughlin, M., Bass, G., Pauly, E., & Zellman, G. (1977). Federal Programs Supporting Educational Change (Vol. 3): Factors Affecting Implementation and Continuation. Santa Monica, CA: The Rand Corporation.

Cameron, M., & Sheppard, S. (2006). School discipline and social work practice: Application of research and theory to intervention. Children & Schools, 28(1), 15-22.

Coleman, J., Campbell, E., Hobson, C., McPartland, J., Mood, A., & Weinfeld, F. (1966). Equality of Educational Opportunity. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics.

Dana, N. F., & Yendol-Silva, D. (2003). The reflective educator’s guide to classroom research: Learning to teach and teaching to learn through practitioner inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Dem?rba?, M., & Ya?basan, R. (2006). An Evaluative Study of Social Learning Theory Based Scientific Attitudes on Academic Success, Gender and Socio-economical Level. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 6(2), 363-371. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

DiPerna, J. (2006). Academic Enablers and Student Achievement: Implications for assessment and intervention services in the schools. Psychology in the Schools, 43(1), 7-17.

Dominicé, Pierre. (2000). Learning from Our Lives: Using Educational Biographies with Adults. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Inc.

Eisner, E. (2005). Back to Whole. Educational Leadership, 63(1), 14-18.

Greene, J. C., & Caracelli, V. C. (1997). Advances in mixed-method evaluation: The challenges and benefits of integrating diverse paradigms. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Griffard, P. (2010). Dissecting Motivation: The Will-Skill-Thrill Profile. Journal of College Science Teaching, 40(10), 10-12.

Hogan, D. (1989). The Market Revolution and Diciplinary Power: Joseph Lancaster and the psychology of the early classroom system. History of Educational Quarterly, 381-417.

Kennedy, M. (2006). From teacher quality to quality teaching. Educational Leadership, 63(6), 14-19.

Leroy, N., Bressoux, P., Sarrazin, P., & Trouilloud, D. (2007). Impact of teachers’ implicit theories and perceived pressures on the establishment of an autonomy supportive climate. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 22(4), 529-545.

Lindgren, J. (2007). Biography as Education Governance. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 28(4), 467-483. doi:10.1080/01596300701625214.

Lunenberg, M., & Korthagen, F. (2005). Breaking the didactic circle: a study on some aspects of the promotion of student?directed learning by teachers and teacher educators. European Journal of Teacher Education, 28(1), 1-22. doi:10.1080/02619760500039589

Manke, P. (1997). Classroom Power Relations: Understanding Student-Teacher Interaction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Marzano, R. (2007). The art of science and teaching: A comprehensive framework for effective instruction. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Payne, R. (1998). A framework for understanding poverty. Baytown, TX: RFT Publishing Company.

Pelech, J., & Pieper , G. (2010). The Comprehensive Handbook of Constructivist Teaching: From Theory to Practice . San Francisco: Information Age Publishing.

Perera, J., Lee, N., Win, K., Perera, J., & Wijesuriya, L. (2008). Formative feedback to students: the mismatch between faculty perceptions and student expectations. Medical Teacher, 30, 390-395.

Reeve, J., & Jang, H. (2006). What teachers say and do to support students’ autonomy during a learning activity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 209-218.

Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher expectation and pupils’ intellectual development. New York: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston.

Ross, J., & Bruce, C. (2007). Professional development effects on teacher efficacy: results of randomized field trial. The Journal of Educational Research, 101(1), 50-60.

Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2002). Effective Teaching of Adults: Themes and Conclusions. New Directions for Adult & Continuing Education, (93), 85. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2003). Adult Learners in the Classroom. New Directions for Student Services, (102), 43. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Sanders, W. L. (2000). Value-added assessment from student achievement data. Cary, NC: Create National Evaluation Institute.

Scheepers, D. (2000, NA NA). Learning Theories: Constructivism. Retrieved February 18, 2011, from hagar.up.ac.za: http://hagar.up.ac.za/catts/learner/2000/scheepers_md/projects/loo/theory/constuct/html

Sergiovanni, T. (2001). The principalship: A reflective practice perspective. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Soodak, L., & Podell, D. (1996). Teacher Efficacy: Toward the Understanding of a Multi-Faceted Construct. teaching and teacher Education, 12, 401-411.

Spring, J. (2005). The American School. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Stage, F. K., & Hossler, D. (2000). Where is the student? Linking Student Behaviors, College Choice, and College Persistence. In J. M. Braxton, Reworking the student departure puzzle (pp. 170-195). Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

Steinman, L. (2007). Literacy Autobiographies in a University ESL Class. Canadian Modern Language Review, 63(4), 563-573. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Stewart, R. A. (2007). Investigating the Link between Self Directed Learning Readiness and Project-Based Learning Outcomes: The Case of International Masters Students in an Engineering Management Course. European Journal of Engineering Education, 32(4), 453-465. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Stroobants, V. (2005). Stories about learning in narrative biographical research. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education (QSE), 18(1), 47-61. doi:10.1080/09518390412331318441

Terry, M. (2006). Self-Directed Learning by Undereducated Adults. Educational Research Quarterly, 29(4), 29-39. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Tinto, V. (1993). Rethinking the Causes and Cures of Student Attrition (2nd Edition). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Tucker, C., Herman, K., Porter, T., Ivery, P., Mack, C., & Jack, E. (2005). Promoting Teacher Efficacy for Working with Culturally Diverse Students. Preventing School Failure, 50(2), 29-34.

Ware, H., & Kitsantas, A. (2007). Teacher and Collective Efficacy Beliefs as Predictors of Professional Commitment. The Journal of Educational Research, 100 (5), 303-310.


Ehrenberg, R. (2004). Key Issues Currently Facing American Higher Education. NACUBO annual meeting, Cornell University: Milwaukee, WI. Print.

Fishman, S. (2010). Older-Learner Programs in Ohio: Policy and Practice Implications. Educational Gerontology, 36(8), 654-675. doi:10.1080/03601277.2010.480877

Gallavan, N. P., & Kottler, E. (2010). Visualizing the Life and Legacy of Henry VIII: Guiding Students with Eight Types of Graphic Organizers. Social Studies, 101(3), 93-102. doi:10.1080/00377991003711699

Herzberg, H. (2006). Learning habitus and the dynamics of lifelong learning. Studies in the Education of Adults, 38(1), 37-47. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

James, R. (May 29-30, 2007). Students and student learning in mass systems of higher education: Six educational issues facing universities and academic leaders. Mass Higher Education in UK and International Contexts, 1-15. University of Melbourne: Surrey, England. Print.

Kane, R. G. (2010). Teaching as Counterinsurgency: Enhancing Pedagogical Effectiveness and Student Learning in a Culture of Distraction. History Teacher, 43(3), 375-396. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Lafrenz, L., & Murray, B. (2005). Fostering Self-Directed Learners through Competitions. College Quarterly, 8(3), Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Parpala, A., Lindblom-Ylänne, S., Komulainen, E., Litmanen, T., & Hirsto, L. (2010). Students’ approaches to learning and their experiences of the teaching-learning environment in different disciplines. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(2), 269-282. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2002). Effective Teaching of Adults: Themes and Conclusions. New Directions for Adult & Continuing Education, (93), 85. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Stockdill, D., & Moore, D. W. (2011). Learning to Link Research, Practice, and Disciplinary Literacies: An Interview With Darin Stockdill. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 54(8), 624-626. doi:10.1598/JAAL.54.8.7

Ya-Hui, S. (2007). The learning society as itself: lifelong learning, individualization of learning, and beyond education. Studies in Continuing Education, 29(2), 195-206. doi:10.1080/01580370701403514

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