Career Opportunities Research and Report
The biological, social, and environmental elements that affect how people think, act, and feel are all covered by the significant science of psychology. The subject of psychology offers professionals a wide range of job options. It can be challenging to decide which subject of psychology to study, though. This is due to the fact that there are numerous fields within psychology, and choosing a concentration is frequently required. Psychologists often lead the way in innovation, developing fresh ideas from previously known concepts to address the shifting demands of individuals, groups, and communities. Through their study, they develop theories and put them to the test. These discoveries are added to the corpus of knowledge that practitioners draw upon in their work with patients and clients, as well as with organizations and communities, as this study continues to produce new material. The field of psychology is incredibly diverse. Psychologists diagnose and treat patients, carry out basic and practical research, consult with communities and organizations, and educate aspiring psychologists and those who follow other fields of study. They gauge personality and intelligence. Here are 12 diverse areas of psychological research, each with a specialized viewpoint.
First is clinical psychology, which is based on the study, evaluation, and treatment of diseases related to mental health and disability as the main goals of clinical psychology. Clinical psychology that is applied and non-applied falls under this category (“Clinical Psychology,” 2016). However, their methods for handling problems in a clinical setting differ (“Competences of Clinical Psychologists,” 2019). The topic of applied clinical psychology is the application of psychology to actual circumstances in various fields. Conversely, non-applied clinical psychology is less involved with patients and concentrates on the theory and research underlying each person’s behavior and thinking. In plain terms, applied psychology applies the findings from the study to actual circumstances, whereas non-applied psychology focuses on research ( “Reviewer Summary for Clinical Psychologist, 2016,” 2017). Applied psychology can be used to address issues in other industries, such as the healthcare industry, by applying psychological concepts and techniques. Clinical psychologists diagnose and treat diseases of the mind, emotions, and behavior. These might be anything from brief crises, like problems brought on by adolescent fights, to more serious, persistent diseases, like schizophrenia (“Competences of Clinical Psychologists,” 2019). Some clinical psychologists only deal with particular issues, like phobias or clinical depression. Others concentrate on specific groups, such as children, families, couples, ethnic minorities, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, transgender people, or the elderly. They also seek medical advice for physical issues with psychological underpinnings.
Secondly, according to Shahidullah & Carlson, counseling psychologists assist clients in identifying their coping mechanisms for both minor setbacks and significant challenges (2014). They work with people of all ages, families, and organizations in counseling, psychotherapy, education, and scientific research, such as schools, hospitals, and businesses (“Supplemental Material for Contemporary Applications of Moderation Analysis in Counseling Psychology,” 2018). Counseling psychologists assist clients in comprehending and resolving career and workplace issues; they take into account the differences in cases and people across the life span; and they have high regard for the impact of individual differences (such as race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, and status as a person with a disability) on psychological well-being (Choi, 2018). They hold that a variety of factors, such as characteristics of the person (such as psychological, physical, or spiritual components) and environmental elements, can impact behavior (e.g., family, society, and cultural groups). To work as a psychologist, one needs a state license. While each state has its regulations, many demand a doctorate from an approved institution, an internship, and two years of supervised practice before you may practice on your own. Although it is not legally necessary to hold board certification from the American Board of Counseling Psychology (ABCoP) or the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards to obtain a license, many companies do (ASPPB). State licensing laws differ, but the majority call for a PhD. Others call for a master’s degree and two years of practice under supervision (“Australian Psychological Society Congress 2016: Melbourne, 13–16 September,” 2016). Additionally, several states demand passing scores on the ASPPB’s Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology and a jurisprudence exam (which covers the state’s legal requirements for practicing psychology) (EPP).
Also, developmental psychologists research how people change psychologically throughout their lives; for instance, the most formative years, childhood and adolescence, have traditionally received the most attention. However, as the country’s life expectancy increases closer to 80 years, developmental psychologists are becoming increasingly interested in aging, particularly in investigating and creating strategies to support older people in maintaining as much independence as possible (Allen, 2020). The focus of educational psychologists is on the efficiency of teaching and learning. They consider various elements, including human potential, student motivation, and the impact of America’s diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds on the classroom. To become licensed, one typically needs a doctorate in developmental psychology, pass an exam, and complete two years of supervised practice (Allen, 2020). Most applicants begin by obtaining a bachelor’s degree in developmental psychology, general psychology, child psychology, or a closely related discipline. In a master’s degree in developmental psychology, students take advanced courses and complete fieldwork under the guidance of a licensed psychologist (Kapoulitsas & Corcoran, 2017). While a master of Arts degree places more of an emphasis on research, a master of science prepares students for clinical practice. Both offer courses in psychological diagnosis, evaluation, and therapy. Graduate students can specialize in a particular clientele, age range, or developmental difficulty, whereas master’s-level training examines every stage of human development (Kapoulitsas & Corcoran, 2017).
The study of cognitive processes, comparative psychology (cross-species comparisons), learning, and conditioning are only a few of the psychological phenomena that experimental psychologists are interested in (Burns, 2015). Regarding their capacities to recognize events in a specific context and to develop and maintain responses to those events, they examine human and nonhuman creatures. Experimental psychologists use the empirical method (data collection) and variable manipulation in the lab to better understand specific phenomena and advance scientific understanding (Burns, 2015). Experimental psychologists work in various settings, including manufacturing facilities, zoos, engineering organizations, and academic institutions (Qualls, 2017). A master’s degree in general or experimental psychology is typically required for experimental psychologists. A doctorate-level psychology degree is typically necessary for those who want to work at a university. Remember that obtaining a degree in experimental psychology is not a requirement for employment as an experimental psychologist (Qualls, 2017). Psychology doctoral programs offer thorough instruction in research methodology and design. Research is frequently the primary focus of applied specialty fields like human factors psychology and industrial-organizational psychology, and experts who work in these fields often make experimentation and research the primary focus of their employment.
Health psychologists focus on the interplay between biology, psychology, and society regarding health and disease. They investigate how patients cope with sickness, why some individuals do not heed medical advice and the most efficient ways to manage discomfort or alter unhealthy lifestyle choices (Eklund et al., 2017). They also create health care plans that promote both physical and emotional well-being. In both private practice and hospitals, health psychologists collaborate with other medical specialists to give patients comprehensive medical care (Gunn, 2015). They inform medical practitioners about symptoms that appear to be physical in nature but actually have psychological reasons, as well as about psychological issues that result from the pain and stress of disease. Those who wish to pursue a degree in health psychology first complete a bachelor’s degree. A psychology major can give students a strong foundation, but they can still follow this career even if they choose a different major. After graduation, graduates can pursue a master’s in health psychology. It’s possible that psychology minors will need to finish some required curriculum. The Graduate Record Examinations are frequently required by schools (Eklund et al., 2017). Additionally, clinical hours are necessary for graduate health psychology programs. To find out how many hours they must accumulate, students should examine the rules in their state. The last requirement to work as a health psychologist in a clinical setting is a PhD in health psychology. Doctoral programs frequently call for six years or more of study.
Industrial or Organizational Psychologists
Industrial or organizational psychologists apply psychological theories and research techniques to the workplace with the goal of enhancing output, well-being, and the standard of living at work. Many work as human resources specialists, assisting businesses with hiring, developing, and retaining talent (O’Gorman & Macqueen, 2017). They could offer employers testing and other reliable selection techniques for use in hiring and promotion procedures. Others serve as management consultants in fields including organizational change management, strategic planning, and quality control. A bachelor’s degree in psychology is the first step on the road to becoming an industrial or organizational psychologist (O’Gorman & Macqueen, 2017). Opportunities with just a bachelor’s degree exist, but they are few. Although they might take some time off in between degrees to work and gain practical experience, the majority of students who are interested in industrial or organizational psychology go on to earn an advanced degree. A graduate in this psychology can frequently acquire an entry-level job to begin a career (Lapine & Sachdev, 2022). A doctorate will, however, increase your chances of finding work in this industry.
Additionally, neuropsychologists investigate the connections between various aspects of the brain and behavior. Behavioral neuropsychologists may research things like how the brain forms and stores memories or how different brain disorders and traumas impact emotion, perception, and behavior. With imaging methods like positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and functional magnetic resonance imaging, they create tasks to examine normal brain activities (fMRI). Clinical neuropsychologists evaluate and care for patients (Cortex Editorial Board, 2018). Additionally, with the sharp rise in the number of traumatic brain injury survivors, neuropsychologists are collaborating with medical professionals to assist those who have suffered brain injuries in leading productive lives once again. Obtaining a bachelor’s degree is the initial requirement for aspiring neuropsychologists. The majority of would-be neuropsychologists major in psychology or a field that is closely connected to it (Abbate & Trimarchi, 2013). Psychology majors learn about neuropsychologists, brain-behavior disorders, and psychological research while pursuing their college degrees. Additionally, students might enroll in specialist neuropsychology or neuroscience courses. Undergraduates can develop their abilities by pursuing internships or relevant work experience. After receiving a bachelor’s degree, students can apply to graduate programs in neuropsychology (Abbate & Trimarchi, 2013). For licensure, neuropsychologists must have a relevant doctorate. Before submitting an application to doctoral schools, several neuropsychologists complete a master’s degree. Graduate students who take this step may be able to focus on their education and be admitted to a highly selective PhD program.
School psychologists provide complete psychological treatments to kids, teens, and families in schools and other practical settings. When necessary, they carry out behavioral interventions, communicate with parents and school personnel, and assess and counsel adolescents. Psychologists work full-time in the majority of school systems. Social psychologists investigate how interactions with other people affect a person’s mental health and behavior (Gunn, 2015). They are concerned with every facet of interpersonal interactions, including the influences of individuals and groups, and they look for ways to improve these interactions. For instance, their work provides insight into how attitudes toward others are formed and when they are negative, such as how to alter prejudice (Gunn, 2015). A doctorate in psychology is required to work as a social psychologist. However, a master’s degree in sports science or psychology and work experience are all needed to become a Certified Mental Performance Consultant (CMPC). That can improve one’s chances of being hired in a relevant field. For example, sports trainers concentrate on the physical aspect of athletics, helping athletes avoid injuries and recover from them. Coaches help players improve their talents and adopt winning team tactics. The application of the mental approach to games in the workplace may be advantageous for both professions.
The study of social psychology focuses on how people interact with and are influenced by one another and their surrounding social and physical contexts (Bazarbayeva, 2022). People can better understand how group dynamics shape their decisions and behaviors thanks to the work of social psychologists, who also offer insight into how social perceptions impact how people interact with others (APA PsycNet, n.d.). A bachelor’s degree in general psychology, social psychology, or a closely related discipline is typically the first step on the road to becoming a social psychologist. Most social psychologists pursue a PhD degree; however, some concentrate on getting their master’s. Social psychology PhD programs typically last five years to complete.
A bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degree in psychology are often required to become a forensic psychologist (Bazarbayeva, 2022). Most licensed clinical psychologists who work in forensic psychology have also completed the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP). A solid basis for pursuing forensic psychology is obtaining a bachelor’s degree in criminal justice, criminology, or general psychology (APA PsycNet, n.d.). However, if accessible, some universities now offer bachelor’s degrees in forensic psychology, which is another excellent alternative. Most aspiring forensic psychologists complete a master’s degree in general psychology, forensic psychology, or psychology with a specialty in law after earning a bachelor’s degree before enrolling in a PhD program.
Last is sports psychology; its goal is to assist athletes, performers, and others in achieving their objectives and managing the anxiety that can impair performance in various settings, from the sporting field to the boardroom (Ziuman, 2018). A master’s or doctoral degree in clinical, counseling, or sports psychology is typically required for employment. Even so, one will need to take additional kinesiology, physiology, sports medicine, business, and marketing classes. It is essential to have direct training and expertise in sports and exercise psychology. The good news is that a few colleges have started to offer sport psychology as a concentration due to the field’s recent surge in popularity (Ziuman, 2018). Applied sport psychology, clinical sport psychology, and academic sports psychology are just a few of the areas in which sports and performance psychologists can choose to focus their expertise.
I believe in studying industrial or organizational psychology because they study and evaluate individuals, groups, and organizational dynamics in the workplace are reviewed and evaluated by industrial and organizational (I/O) psychologists. Also, I will use that study to find answers to issues that enhance the performance and well-being of businesses and their personnel. I/O psychologists are specialists in the conception, execution, and evaluation of psychological studies. I will use I/O research in a variety of ways to address issues relating to people and organizations in the workplace, including identifying, training, and developing needs; enhancing the quality of work life; developing and evaluating training programs; coaching employees and organization leaders; developing performance standards for people and organizations; and evaluating consumer preferences, customer satisfaction, and market trends.
In conclusion, real-world issues across all academic disciplines and multidisciplinary team research blends the theories and methodologies from other disciplines to accomplish a single objective. It encourages teamwork among researchers with various specialties, which might result in creative solutions and groundbreaking discoveries that would otherwise be impossible.
Abbate, C., & Trimarchi, P. D. (2013). Clinical neuropsychologists need a standard preliminary observational examination of cognitive functions. Frontiers in Psychology, 4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00314
Allen, K. A. (2020). Climate change, a critical new role for educational and developmental psychologists. The Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 37(1), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1017/edp.2020.6
APA PsycNet. (n.d.). Psycnet.apa.org. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2019-17327-001
Australian Psychological Society Congress 2016: Melbourne, 13–16 September. (2016). The Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 33(1), 122–125. https://doi.org/10.1017/edp.2016.11
Bazarbayeva Aynura Bakhtiyarovna. (2022). Features and analysis of approaches to the training of professional psychologists in the framework of teaching students at the university. European Journal of Innovation in Nonformal Education, 2(6), 265–267. http://innovatus.es/index.php/ejine/article/view/1049
Burns, R. P. (2015). Some limitations of experimental psychologists’ criticism of the American trial. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2545879
Choi, G. (2018). Social justice and counseling psychologists’ roles. The Korean Journal Of Counseling And Psychotherapy, 30(2), 249–271. https://doi.org/10.23844/kjcp.2018.05.30.2.249
Clinical Psychology. (2016). International Journal of Psychology, 51, 82–158. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12298
Competences of Clinical Psychologists. (2019). Clinical Psychology in Europe, 1(2). https://doi.org/10.32872/cpe.v1i2.35551
Cortex Editorial Board. (2018). Responsibility of neuropsychologists: The case of the”sonic attack” Cortex, 108, A1–A2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2018.10.001
Eklund, K., Meyer, L., Way, S., & Mclean, D. (2017). School psychologists as mental health providers: The impact of staffing ratios and Medicaid on service provisions. Psychology in the Schools, 54(3), 279–293. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.21996
Gunn, W. (2015). Influencing the patient experience: psychologists partnering in health care influencing the patient experience: Psychologists partnering in health care. PsycCRITIQUES, 6060(2929). https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039340
Kapoulitsas, M., & Corcoran, T. (2017). School psychologists and ethical challenges. The Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 34(1), 48–61. https://doi.org/10.1017/edp.2016.21
Lapine, C. M., & Sachdev, A. R. (2022). Online graduate programs: Better equity for industrial-organizational psychologists among disadvantaged groups. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 15(2), 208–211. https://doi.org/10.1017/iop.2022.21O’Gorman, J., & Macqueen, P. (2017). Licensing organizational psychologists: The Australian experience. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 10(2), 217–223. https://doi.org/10.1017/iop.2017.14
Qualls, S. H. (2017).Psychologists’ roles with family caregivers and health systems. Innovation in Aging, 1(suppl_1), 977–977. https://doi.org/10.1093/geroni/igx004.3528
Reviewer Summary for Clinical Psychologist, 2016. (2017). Clinical psychologist, 21(1), 3–3. https://doi.org/10.1111/cp.12116
Shahidullah, J. D., & Carlson, J. S. (2014). Survey of nationally certified school psychologists’ roles and training in psychopharmacology. Psychology in the Schools, 51(7), 705–721. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.21776
Supplemental material for contemporary applications of moderation analysis in counseling psychology. (2018). Journal of Counseling Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000290.supp
Ziuman, H. (2018). Professional training of future psychologists considering the classification of fields of their professional activity. Transactions of Kremenchuk Mykhailo Ostrohradskyi National University, 2(2), 45–52. https://doi.org/10.30929/1995-0519.2018.2.p2.45-52