Discussion Essay Psychology

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The merit-rating techniques for performance appraisal include the judgmental and the objective. In the objective performance appraisal, there is recording of the number of units produced in a given time. Therefore, the quality and the quantity of the output must be checked. In qualitative and quantitative analysis, there are different factors to be considered such as the environment affecting job performance.

An employee’s job experience in times of employment will also determine the performance (Aguinis, 2009). Electronic performance appraisal technique exists when computers at the workplace have monitors checking employee’s workability and grading them on their performance. There are the job-related personal data like earnings history, the number of accidents, and the number of times an employee has not been coming to work. This can also be analyzed to indicate employee performance (Creswell, 1994).

The judgmental appraisal performance is where the I/O psychologist assesses the employees work and record the information. There are different methods for recording such as the written narrative, which is commonly used, but can be biased sometimes. The other method is the merit rating technique where the objectivity is rated (Creswell 1994). It may also include the ranking method, the rating techniques, the paired comparison technique, and the forced distribution technique.

Q2. Observation method for analyzing job

There are several ways for collecting job information data. The methods of collecting data depend on the objectives of an organization job analysis. They depend on the collection job information: when researched, further information may prove that other tools are required in order to make the job good. In selection, a perfect job analysis method relies on the organization, the nature of the job, the responsibility of a worker and the position one has on the organization. An individual must look at the pros and cons of the chosen method before carrying out the data collection (Creswell 1994).

The observation method in data collection depends on the performance of the organization, the fulfillment of the duties of a worker, the health of the worker and the skill types that the worker use. There are different problems encountered in the collection of data: people preserve information differently than others. Some may be biased providing compromised information (Aguinis, 2009). The techniques used in the procedures can help in structuring observational data because it is collected directly. In this case, there is the direct recording of employee’s behavior in the job setup. The critical incident occurs when workers behaviors are observed according to performance. The working method analysis is where the motion and time of the workers is observed.

Q3. Contributions of Multidimensional Behaviors

Multidimensional means there are different types of behaviors gathered under the common label. The types of multidimensional behaviors include the following: cluster A, which contains the paranoid personality disorder, which causes an individual to have mistrust on everyone. The second is cluster B that causes a person to be extremely emotional and dramatic. Example of a cluster B, patient is the borderline personality disorder where the individual is erratic that can lead to self harm (Schultz & Schultz, 2010.). The third is the cluster c this is where the individual is fearful. The person will suffer from the Avoidant personality disorder that causes the individual to avoid people.

For many of us, understanding a group or set of behaviors begins, with understanding the individual, component behaviors, and then moving on to understanding their interactions when the behaviors are exhibited by the same person (Aguinis 2009). Practicing I/O psychologists establish criteria or standards for evaluating the contributions of multidimensional behaviors to the effectiveness of business activities at the organization, business unit, or team level when they have all the needed information. They should be able to help the workers with this behavior by having offices where they can be contacted easily in the same organization (Creswell, 1994).


  1. Aguinis, H. (2009). Performance management (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
    Creswell, J. W. (1994). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
  2. Schultz, D., & Schultz, S. E. (2010). Psychology and work today: An introduction to Industrial and organizational psychology (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

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