Education and Spelling Foundation. Summary

Undergraduate education places great emphasis on inexpensive and effective classroom strategies, teaching abilities and character, and student achievement and engagement. Still, the anticipated progress has not been made, as the Spellings commission pointed out (“A TEST OF LEADERSHIP…”, 2006). As the literature review has amply demonstrated, the disillusionment with funding, faculty and student engagement, and achievement has only increased in the last twenty years- during which time higher education has focused on budgetary concerns and thus made little progress in the reconceptualization in practice of the useful SDL and SL theories.

In the 21st century, focusing on complete student development has become standard practice for educators. However, the changing nature of technological exposure demands constant changes from education as well. In emerging computer science and engineering programs, the use of SDL has been subtly directed by posing realistic problems for further reflection, study, and corrections. Whether a new solution is arrived at independently or cooperatively, SL and SDL theories overlap in a process of psychological and social discovery (Stewart, 2007). This involves focus on social skills, study skills, and curriculum standards (DiPerna, 2006). Academic confidence and well-developed social skills go hand-in-hand in predicting student achievement. Effective faculty members implement various strategies to reduce class disruptions and enhance learning. Although no singular strategy exists to be equally effective on all students, one common denominator of high teacher efficacy is the teacher’s love of academia and unquenchable thirst to educate students (Payne, 1998). Quality faculty are aware of their students’ strengths and weaknesses, have positive attitudes, communicate well will all stakeholders, have busy classrooms, possess in-depth content knowledge, and are good listeners (Marzano R. , 2007). Although these are all requirements to enhance student achievement, faculty are still hindered by unpredictable circumstances. Kennedy (2006), states that these circumstances often affect teacher performance. Exuberant amounts of paperwork, classroom visitors, unexpected questioning, and office interruptions lead to unforeseen classroom disruptions. A teacher with exceptional skills will utilize these disruptions to enhance student learning. For instance, a teacher could use an unexpected question to create an interesting learning experience which will heighten student curiosity and increase academic motivation (Kennedy, 2006).

 “The principle goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done,” – Jean Piaget (Eisner, 2005).


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